Tours of the Black Prompt: Clustered NetApp Data ONTAP – Part 1

In the first article in our series, we took a tour of how to navigate and use the CLI with Data ONTAP 7-Mode. Today we’re going to dive into the CLI for clustered Data ONTAP where it gets a lot more fun!

Commands, Navigation, and Privilege Levels

Logging in (via SSH or console – telnet is disabled by default and strongly discouraged) you are provided a simple administrative-level prompt:

cdot_mba1::>

The prompt contains the name of the cluster (“cdot_mba1”) followed by a “::>” which indicates that you are in the cluster shell, at the root of the command tree (more on that in a moment) and at the normal administrative privilege level.

From here, you can see the available command structure by simply typing “?”:

cdot_mba1::> ?
  up                          Go up one directory
  cluster>                    Manage clusters
  dashboard>                  Display dashboards
  event>                      Manage system events
  exit                        Quit the CLI session
  history                     Show the history of commands for this CLI session
  job>                        Manage jobs and job schedules
  lun>                        Manage LUNs
  man                         Display the on-line manual pages
  network>                    Manage physical and virtual network connections
  qos>                        QoS settings
  redo                        Execute a previous command
  rows                        Show/Set the rows for this CLI session
  run                         Run interactive or non-interactive commands in the node shell
  security>                   The security directory
  set                         Display/Set CLI session settings
  sis                         Manage volume efficiency
  snapmirror>                 Manage SnapMirror
  statistics>                 Display operational statistics
  storage>                    Manage physical storage, including disks, aggregates, and failover
  system>                     The system directory
  top                         Go to the top-level directory
  volume>                     Manage virtual storage, including volumes, snapshots, and mirrors
  vserver>                    Manage Vservers

You can already see that this is quite a bit different from 7-mode. The commands are organized into a tree which you can navigate similarly to a directory structure. The ">" at the end indicates this is a directory, or context, into which you can further explore. At each level, you can use "?" to display the commands or sub-contexts available.


cdot_mba1::> storage

cdot_mba1::storage> ?
  aggregate>                  Manage storage aggregates
  array>                      The array directory
  disk>                       Manage physical disks
  errors>                     The errors directory
  failover>                   Manage storage failover
  library>                    The library directory
  load>                       The load directory
  path>                       The path directory
  raid-options>               The raid-options directory

cdot_mba1::storage> 

You can also simply tab to display a more concise view of your options. And yes, that means that tab completion is included in the shell!


cdot_mba1::storage>
    aggregate    array        disk         errors       failover
    library      load         path         raid-options

cdot_mba1::storage> aggregate
    add-disks         create            delete            modify
    offline           online            raidtype          relocation
    rename            restrict          scrub             show
    show-scrub-status show-space       

cdot_mba1::storage> aggregate show -aggregate aggr0 

We'll circle back to tab completion later, but did you notice how the prompt has now changed? The current command sub-directory is now displayed within the prompt following the "::". This provides you with visual breadcrumbs for what context you're operating in and where in the command tree you are currently.


cdot_mba1::storage> aggregate

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate> ?
  add-disks                   Add disks to an aggregate
  create                      Create an aggregate
  delete                      Delete an aggregate
  modify                      Modify aggregate attributes
  offline                     Offline an aggregate
  online                      Online an aggregate
  raidtype>                   The raidtype directory
  relocation>                 Manage aggregate relocation
  rename                      Rename an aggregate
  restrict                    Restrict an aggregate
  scrub                       Aggregate parity scrubbing
  show                        Display a list of aggregates
  show-scrub-status           Display aggregate scrubbing status
  show-space                  Display details of space utilization within an aggregate.

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate> raidtype

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate raidtype>

Ok, going down through the directory is easy, but what about going back up? There's actually several different options. You can simply say that you want to go up a level:

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate raidtype> up

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate>

You can say that you want to go all the way back to the top no matter how far down you are:

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate> top

cdot_mba1::>

Or you can do a standard "change directory" or cd:

cdot_mba1::storage> cd ..

cdot_mba1::>

You can also jump around within the tree either using cd or simply entering the context to which you want to change.

cdot_mba1::> volume

cdot_mba1::volume> cd aggregate

cdot_mba1::storage aggregate> volume

cdot_mba1::volume>

Just like 7-mode Data ONTAP, there are two additional privilege levels available: advanced and diag. You can change to these levels using the set -privilege command.

cdot_mba1::> set -privilege advanced

Warning: These advanced commands are potentially dangerous; use them only when directed to do so by NetApp personnel.
Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y

cdot_mba1::*> set -privilege diagnostic

Warning: These diagnostic commands are for use by NetApp personnel only.
Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y

cdot_mba1::*> 

The asterisk after the "::" indicates that you are in either advanced or diag privilege mode, and there is unfortunately no visual distinction between the two modes.

More commands are available within the higher privilege levels than in the normal admin level, though because of the organization of the command tree they do not stand out as much as they do in 7-mode.

Advanced:

  up                          Go up one directory
  cluster>                    Manage clusters
  dashboard>                  Display dashboards
  event>                      Manage system events
  exit                        Quit the CLI session
  history                     Show the history of commands for this CLI session
  job>                        Manage jobs and job schedules
  lun>                        Manage LUNs
  man                         Display the on-line manual pages
  network>                    Manage physical and virtual network connections
  qos>                        QoS settings
  redo                        Execute a previous command
  rows                        Show/Set the rows for this CLI session
  run                         Run interactive or non-interactive commands in the node shell
  security>                   The security directory
  set                         Display/Set CLI session settings
  sis                         Manage volume efficiency
  snapmirror>                 Manage SnapMirror
  statistics>                 Display operational statistics
  storage>                    Manage physical storage, including disks, aggregates, and failover
  system>                     The system directory
  top                         Go to the top-level directory
  volume>                     Manage virtual storage, including volumes, snapshots, and mirrors
  vserver>                    Manage Vservers

Diag:

  up                          Go up one directory
  cluster>                    Manage clusters
  dashboard>                  Display dashboards
  diag>                       *The diag directory
  event>                      Manage system events
  exit                        Quit the CLI session
  history                     Show the history of commands for this CLI session
  job>                        Manage jobs and job schedules
  logger>                     *Management logger
  lun>                        Manage LUNs
  man                         Display the on-line manual pages
  network>                    Manage physical and virtual network connections
  qos>                        QoS settings
  redo                        Execute a previous command
  repository>                 *Manage a content repository
  rows                        Show/Set the rows for this CLI session
  run                         Run interactive or non-interactive commands in the node shell
  security>                   The security directory
  set                         Display/Set CLI session settings
  sis                         Manage volume efficiency
  snapmirror>                 Manage SnapMirror
  spm>                        *Service Process Manager
  statistics>                 Display operational statistics
  storage>                    Manage physical storage, including disks, aggregates, and failover
  system>                     The system directory
  top                         Go to the top-level directory
  volume>                     Manage virtual storage, including volumes, snapshots, and mirrors
  vserver>                    Manage Vservers
 

Changing between privilege levels is always done the same way, even when going back down from a higher level to the admin level:

cdot_mba1::*> set -privilege admin

cdot_mba1::>

Command Syntax and Help

You can see the syntax for a command by passing it the "-?" flag, but only at the appropriate level.

cdot_mba1::> storage -?         

Error: "-" is not a recognized command

cdot_mba1::> storage aggregate -?

Error: "-" is not a recognized command

cdot_mba1::> storage aggregate show -?
  [ -checksum | -disk | -instance | -raid-info | -fields , ... ]
  [[-aggregate] ]                           Aggregate
  [ -chksumstyle  ]                         Checksum Style
  [ -diskcount  ]                                  Number Of Disks
  [ -nodes , ... ]                                Nodes
  [ -disklist|-d , ... ]                    Disks
  [ -free-space-realloc {on|off|no_redirect} ]              Free Space Reallocation
  [ -ha-policy {sfo|cfo} ]                                  HA Policy
  [ -percent-snapshot-space  ]                     Space Reserved for Snapshot Copies
  [ -hybrid-enabled {true|false} ]                          Hybrid Enabled
  [ -availsize {[KB|MB|GB|TB|PB]} ]                Available Size
  [ -chksumenabled {true|false} ]                           Checksum Enabled
  [ -chksumstatus  ]                                  Checksum Status
  [ -has-mroot {true|false} ]                               Has Mroot Volume
  [ -has-partner-mroot {true|false} ]                       Has Partner Node Mroot Volume
  [ -home-id  ]                                    Home ID
  [ -home-name  ]                                     Home Name
  [ -hybrid-cache-size-total {[KB|MB|GB|TB|PB]} ]  Total Hybrid Cache Size
  [ -hybrid {true|false} ]                                  Hybrid
  [ -inconsistent {true|false} ]                            Inconsistent
  [ -is-home {true|false} ]                                 Is Aggregate Home
  [ -maxraidsize|-s  ]                             Max RAID Size
  [ -cache-raid-group-size  ]                      Flash Pool SSD Tier Maximum RAID Group Size
  [ -owner-id  ]                                   Owner ID
  [ -owner-name  ]                                    Owner Name
  [ -percent-used  ]                               Used Percentage
  [ -plexes , ... ]                                   Plexes
  [ -raidgroups , ... ]                               RAID Groups
  [ -raidstatus  ]                                    RAID Status
  [ -raidtype|-t {raid_dp|raid4} ]                          RAID Type
  [ -root {true|false} ]                                    Is Root
  [ -sis-metadata-space-used {[KB|MB|GB|TB|PB]} ]  Space Used by Metadata for Volume Efficiency
  [ -size {[KB|MB|GB|TB|PB]} ]                     Size
  [ -state  ]                              State
  [ -usedsize {[KB|MB|GB|TB|PB]} ]                 Used Size
  [ -volcount  ]                                   Number Of Volumes
  [ -volume-style  ]                                  Volume Style

cdot_mba1::> storage aggregate show -

In this example, it's not until you get to the third word of the command that you are able to use the "-?" to display the parameters. This is because the first two words were actually directories or contexts (you may recall that both displayed the trailing ">" when we were navigating above) rather than actionable commands. It's that action that is key: you can't issue a command without specifying what it is you want done. Nouns alone won't cut it - you need to use a verb. So a command in the cluster shell will generally always end in a verb (show, create, delete, modify, etc.) and it is then that you can specify the appropriate parameters.

Where it gets even better are the manual (man) pages for clustered Data ONTAP. Similar to 7-mode, administrative-level commands have man page available explaining the operation of the command in detail:

cdot_mba1::> man system


system                          Data ONTAP 8.2                          system

NAME
     system -- The system directory

DESCRIPTION
     The system commands enable you to monitor and control cluster nodes.

SUBDIRECTORIES
     health> - System Health Management and Diagnosis commands

     license> - Manage licenses

     node> - The system node directory

     script> - Capture CLI session to a file for later upload. Analogous to the unix 'script' command

     services> - Manage system services

     smtape> - Manage SMTape operations

     snmp> - The snmp directory

     timeout> - Manage the timeout value for CLI sessions


Data ONTAP 8.2                       -o-                        Data ONTAP 8.2

A key difference here is that you won't have to look at a single man page covering the entire command - or command directory/context - which may run on for many pages of output (some of the man pages might be more accurately described as man books). Instead, you can specify exactly at which level of the command you are looking for more information.

cdot_mba1::> man system health

system health                   Data ONTAP 8.2                   system health

NAME
     system health -- System Health Management and Diagnosis commands

DESCRIPTION
     System Health Management and Diagnosis commands

SUBDIRECTORIES
     alert> - The alert directory

     autosupport> - The autosupport directory

     chassis> - Chassis health monitor directory

     cluster-switch> - The cluster-switch directory

     config> - The config directory

     controller> - Controller health monitor directory

     node-connectivity> - Node storage connectivity health monitor directory

     policy> - The policy directory

     status> - The status directory

     subsystem> - The subsystem directory

     system-connectivity> - System storage connectivity health monitor directory


Data ONTAP 8.2                       -o-                        Data ONTAP 8.2

cdot_mba1::> man system health status show

system health status show       Data ONTAP 8.2       system health status show

NAME
     system health status show -- Display system health monitoring status

AVAILABILITY
     This command is available to cluster administrators at the admin privilege level.

DESCRIPTION
     The system health status show command displays the health monitor status. The possible states are:

     o  ok

     o  ok-with-suppressed

     o  degraded

     o  unreachable

PARAMETERS
     None


EXAMPLES
      This example displays information about health monitoring status:

                                                               +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                                               |                                                                                 |
                                                               |                                                                                 |
                                                               |  cluster1::> system health status show                                          |
                                                               |       Status                                                                    |
                                                               |       ---------------                                                           |
                                                               |       degraded                                                                  |
                                                               |                                                                                 |
                                                               +---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+


Data ONTAP 8.2                       -o-                        Data ONTAP 8.2

 

Command Completion

As noted previously, tab completion is built into the cluster shell so rather than having to fully type out storage aggregate you can type st[TAB]ag[TAB] instead to have the shell auto-complete the commands for you.

You can also abbreviate the commands rather than tab completing them:


cdot_mba1::> st ag sh
Error: Ambiguous command.  Possible matches include:
       storage aggregate show
       storage aggregate show-scrub-status
       storage aggregate show-space
     
cdot_mba1::> st ag show
  (storage aggregate show)
Aggregate     Size Available Used% State   #Vols  Nodes            RAID Status
--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0        900MB   43.54MB   95% online       1 cdot_mba1-01     raid_dp,
                                                                   normal

cdot_mba1::>  

As you can see, abbreviation will only work if the abbreviation is unique, but even when it isn't, the shell will show you the possible options in order to make it easier for you to complete the desired command. The uniqueness of the abbreviation is key and is similar to one of the navigation tricks above: you don't necessarily need to provide the entire path of the command as long as the abbreviated command is unique:

cdot_mba1::> ag show
  (aggr)
Aggregate     Size Available Used% State   #Vols  Nodes            RAID Status
--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0        900MB   43.54MB   95% online       1 cdot_mba1-01     raid_dp,
                                                                   normal

cdot_mba1::> 

You can also easily find where sub-commands or actions are available throughout the command tree simply by typing the word and hitting [Enter]:

cdot_mba1::> status
Error: Ambiguous command.  Possible matches include:
       system services manager status
       system health status
       vserver nfs status
       vserver services ndmp status
       system services ndmp status
       system license status
       volume clone split status
       event status
       volume file clone status
       system smtape status
       system services ndmp node-scope-mode status
       system node coredump status
       system node coredump segment status

cdot_mba1::> health
Error: Ambiguous command.  Possible matches include:
       system health
       vserver dashboard health
       dashboard health
       cluster peer health

This can be a great way to explore the various nooks & crannies of the CLI - there's a lot there to look at!

Navigation and Editing

Command-line editing and navigation utilizes the standard keystrokes and combination previously discussed in CLI Efficiency: Common Basics

You can navigate through your previously-entered commands using the up and down arrows, or Ctrl+n and Ctrl+p, or you can now use the history command to simply display the contents of that history.

cdot_mba1::> history
    1  stor aggr show
    2  man syste
    3  man systm health status
    4  history
    5  vol show

You can enter multiple commands on the same command line by separating each command with a semi-colon. The commands will then be executed in order of entry.

cdot_mba1::> stor aggr show; vol show
  (storage aggregate show)
Aggregate     Size Available Used% State   #Vols  Nodes            RAID Status
--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0        900MB   43.54MB   95% online       1 cdot_mba1-01     raid_dp,
                                                                   normal

  (volume show)
Vserver   Volume       Aggregate    State      Type       Size  Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
cdot_mba1-01
          vol0         aggr0        online     RW      851.5MB    303.2MB   64%

cdot_mba1::> 

After all of the above, we've still only begun to scratch the surface of the features available in the clustered Data ONTAP CLI: there's a lot more yet to come!

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6 thoughts on “Tours of the Black Prompt: Clustered NetApp Data ONTAP – Part 1

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